Business Management 300 - Management & Leadership Principles
Study Guide for Midterm Exam
Instructor: Marcus H. Martins, Ph.D.

1. A person tries to develop a profile of an individual based on limited pieces of information. This process is called                              (6:110)

2. The process of                           allows us to differentiate between people and events using multiple criteria and provides more accurate perceptions. (6:112)

3. According to Douglas McGregor’s Theory X, managers have traditionally held which assumption about people at work? (6:112)

4. A job applicant makes a very good first impression because of her professional attire and overall appearance. The interviewer subsequently rates the applicant very high on all dimensions, including aptitude for the job and motivation. This is an example of                            (6:113)

5. Because Karen does not like working overtime, she refuses to ask members of her department to work overtime since she assumes they dislike it as much as she does. This illustrates which perceptual error? (6:113)

6. What perceptual error occurs when an individual attributes behavior or attitudes to a person based on the group or category to which that person belongs? (6:114)

7. The degree to which individuals believe that their actions influence the rewards they receive in life is called                    (6:119)

8. According to Abraham Maslow’s concept of self-actualization, people will                   (6:124)

9. According to Maslow, when do people reach self-actualization? (6:124)

10. Identify one of the most frequent perceptual errors. (6:113-114)

11. Minorities often experience prejudice because of which perceptual tendencies? (6:115)

12. Identify the 3 needs in McClelland & Atkinson’s "Learned Needs Theory." (6:125, 127)

13. Define the personality trait called "self-esteem." (6:120)

14. Define the personality trait called "self-efficacy"? (6:120)

15. An organization can address the higher level needs of employees by                       (6:123-124)

16. The process of watching how others behave, seeing the consequences of their behavior, and then behaving in the same way is called                        (7:137)

17. According to reinforcement theory, behavior is influenced and directed by                      (7:138-139)

18. Al told his friends that "the job makes me feel good about myself. I feel a real sense of accomplishment at the end of the day." What type of reward is that? (7:140)

19. Praising a supervisor for completing a safety report on time is an illustration of what kind of reinforcement contingency? (7:141)

20. Giving a paycheck to an employee every seven days is an example of which reinforcement schedule? (7:145)

21. In expectancy theory, the term "valence" refers to:                      (7:150)

22. According to expectancy theory of motivation, the three basic components of motivation are: (7:150)

23. What theory analyzes individuals’ comparisons of their contributions to work and the benefits they receive with the contributions and benefits given by and to others? (7:151)

24. According to goal setting theory, what is a "goal"? (7:154)

25. What factors would increase one’s commitment to a goal? (7:156)

26. Identify a "secondary reward:" (7:139)

27. The effectiveness of a message is largely influenced by this perception: (15:312)

28. Which of the following characteristics of a source could eliminate the persuasiveness of a message? (15:313)

29. Most people respond to messages that are only slightly more or less favorable than their own opinions. This range is called: (15:315)

30. Attending to both the content and feelings of a message is called                           (15:317)

31. Individuals within a system who connect two or more groups without belonging to either, are filling which organizational communication role? (15:325)

32. What is a "gatekeeper" in communication research? (15:325)

33. According to one definition, leadership is different from management because leaders                         , and managers                   . (17:349)

34. Define "empowerment." (17:351)

35. Characterize or exemplify "Transactional Leadership." (17:351)

36. Characterize or exemplify "Transformational Leadership." (17:351)

37. Characterize or exemplify "Charismatic Leadership." (17:352)

38. Define "authority." (18:370)

39. The conditions necessary for the exercise of power are interdependence,                  , and                   . (18:369)

40. Define "Politics." (18:369)

41. Which of the following is not one of the three types of authority defined by Max Weber? (18:371)

42. Which of the following best illustrates the use of symbols as an indication of power? (18:373)

43. A certain doctor is considered one of the leading specialists in his field of artificial heart transplants. He exerts much influence over surgeons in many hospitals. Such influence is best termed                      (18:374)

44. Which bases of power are under organizational control? (18:374)

45. Define "referent power." (18:374)

46. Individuals and groups can acquire power in a variety of ways. Which of the following would be least effective as a strategy for acquiring interpersonal power? (18:375-377)

47. Which of the following represents a significant internal force of organizational change? (19:390)

48. Which of the following is not one of the common causes of resistance to change? (19:390)

49. Which of the following will help overcome resistance to change? (19:392)

50. The change implementation technique that views a problem as a product of forces working in different, often opposite, directions is called               (19:397)

If you have any difficulty finding the answers--or if you just want to double-check your answers--come to my office, or give me a call (277-2619), or send me an e-mail message: